products containing high levels of extenders or fillers of plant origin or products manufactured using pale soft exudative (PSE) meat. India was the main exporter of lac dye during the 18th century, but later, after the arrival of synthetic dyes, a significant reduction was observed in the exportation. Red to red-purple hydrophilic betacyanins (betalain pigments) of beet powder (E 162/21 CFR §73.400) and beet juice (E 162/21 CFR §73.260) are further approved food colorants. Also, the still current controversy around carcinogenic nitrosamines in cured meat products is pushing for a reduction in the authorised levels of nitrates and nitrites, making the addition of colouring agents necessary. Furthermore, the overall focus of research on insect chemical ecology continues to expand from a relatively narrow analysis of the involved secondary metabolites to a more comprehensive approach aimed at elucidation of associated biomolecular mechanisms and their effect on the ecological fitness of the interacting organisms. lindheimeri: If you look closely at an individual tuft, often you see that the white cotton is stained here and there with red, as you see below: If you carefully remove a tuft and pick apart the cottony fibers, inside you may discover a tiny insect like the one shown at the top of this page. Currently, lycopene for coloring food is either obtained synthetically or after extraction from tomatoes or from by-products of the tomato processing industry (Lycored, 1995; Watson, 2014). A bright red liquid issued from it. Degradation in aqueous conditions in sunlight takes place rapidly and when compared with anthocyanins, colour loss at acidic pH is more pronounced (Ghidouche et al., 2013). Guerra, G.P. The ovarioles develop asynchronously. The complete cycle lasts three months, during which time the cacti are kept at a constant temperature of 27 °C (81 °F). The quality of carmine is affected by the temperature and illumination during its preparation, sunlight being a prerequisite for the production of a brilliant hue. To produce dye from cochineals, the insects are collected when they are approximately ninety days old. Thus, stabilising the haem-iron in the reduced state to minimise its oxidation susceptibility during blood processing and storage is essential. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 98(1):68–89 Perez-Guerra G, Kosztarab M (1992) Biosystematics of the family Dactylopiidae (Homoptera: Coccinea) with emphasis on the life cycle of Dactylopius coccus Costa. In the food industry, carmine is also referred to as cochineal, cochineal extract, crimson lake, and natural red 4. However, for carvacrol-type vermouths, their dominant aromatic attribute comes from the monoterpenoid phenol, carvacrol, a major flavorant in summer savory (Satureja hortenis), as well as flavorants from Crete, a type of oregano (Origanum dictamus). 16. of her life. [ Links ] Red cultivars, such as Tokay and Baco Noir may also be used, depending on availability and preferences of the region. Treating Hb with NaNO2 in the presence of sodium ascorbate results in a highly nitrosated haem pigment (nitrosoHb) which can be used as a colorant in meat products with no pro-oxidative effects and with practically no residual nitrite content (Sakata et al., 1992). In spite of these challenges, the extent to which arthropods have developed extremely specialized adaptations, many of which are dependent on secondary metabolites, suggests that arthropods, along with their specifically adapted microfauna, should continue to be a primary source of chemical diversity. However, carminic acid has an ability to form metal chelates, mainly with calcium and aluminum. It is also used as a natural dye in cosmetics, artisan crafts, and textiles. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 16: 1-90. The obtained pigment was crystalline in shape. In France, extraction usually involves soaking a smaller quantity of the herb and spice mixture (4–8 g/L) directly in the base wine, following fortification. As a beverage, they are taken straight, as an aperitif, or used as a base for various cocktails. For this, maturation tends to occur in oak cooperage. The bitter attributes of vermouths can be variously ascribed to alkaloids (e.g., Chinchona), anthroquinones (e.g., aloes and/or rhubarb), quassinoids (Quassia bark), and secoiridoids (Gentiana). 92–1. These naturally occurring pigments can be used extensively in the food, medicine, and cosmetics industries. Female scales develop through three life stages (instars). How they are produced, dried, ground (if done), and stored can significantly affect the intensity and quality of the flavors they donate. Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae. The botanicals may receive preliminary exposure to hot water. However, the approved upper limits of added lycopene from tomato oleoresins (Access to European Union law, 2009a), Blakeslea trispora (Access to European Union law, 2006), or synthetic origin (Access to European Union law, 2009b) in the European Union does often not allow a sufficiently red color hue. Cultivated cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) produces carminic acid, a red dye used to color textiles, cosmetics and food. Heating may also be part of the extraction process to facilitate flavor release. In particular, the oily red aril of the fruit was demonstrated to contain up to five times higher lycopene contents than other well-known lycopene-rich fruits such as tomato, papaya, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and pink guava (Aoki et al., 2002; Rao and Rao, 2007). Once prepared, the formulated extract is added to the base wine. The main pigment (> 95%) in cochineal is the C-glycoside, carminic acid (Figure 1.3a), while lac contains several different pigments, predominantly laccaic acids A, B, and C (Mortensen, 2006; Figure 1.3b–d). Brauch, in Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages, 2016. Until now, however, their application is still limited, possibly due to their higher production cost and limited availability. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Homoptera: Dactylophidae), a cottony scale that resembles a mealybug and occurs on prickly pears cacti, is known in Texas history as the scale used by American Indians to make a crimson dye which was used to paint missionary buildings, particularly in the San Antonio area. In contrast, dark-colored berries, such as the extremely pigment-rich maqui berries (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. During ancient times, scale insects belonging to the Coccoidea family were used extensively in the textile industry for dyeing purposes. Chemical structure of cochineal and lac pigments. Such instances bring to the foreground what may be the biggest challenge in insect natural products research: lack of sufficient sample amounts for detailed analyses. They are also categorized based on type of precursor: first, those are produced by cyclization of linear precursors (e.g., aphins, anthraquinones, and tetrapyrroles), and second, the others that are derived from cyclic precursors, such as pterins, anthocyanins, and melanins. For example, chrysomeline leaf beetles, over the course of their evolutionary history, appear to have employed de novo synthesis, dietary sequestration, and mixed insect–plant biogenetic routes toward the acquisition of defensive metabolites.31. The lipophilic carotenoid lycopene (tomato lycopene extract or concentrate, E 160/21 CFR §73.585) is used for red to brown hues. Carminic acid biosynthesis in insects apparently proceeds via a five-stage process beginning with the formation of aliphatic heptaketide. One can differentiate the male from the female by the presence of wings in the former. In various countries, other fruits may be fermented to produce a base product for vermouth production (Panesar et al., 2011). However, recently . Today, cochineal dye is primarily obtained from an extract of the bodies of scale females found feeding on an Opuntia cactus native to Mexico, and the Americas. Although it is still widely used to color many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals orange or red, only recently have religious practices and rare allergies encouraged more precise labeling of its presence. atrorubens Alef.) Acylation with these acids were shown to stabilize anthocyanins by sterically hindering degradative agents (Giusti and Wrolstad, 2003; Kammerer et al., 2004; Sadilova et al., 2006). Carminic acid is a red dye extracted from several insect taxa: Kermes vermilio (kermes), Porphyrophora polonica (Polish cochineal), Porphyrophora hamelii (Armenian cochineal), Dactylopius coccus (American cochineal or simply cochineal), and Kerria lacca (lac – often referred to by its old name: Laccifer lacca) (Mortensen, 2006). The importance of insect pigments and their functions have been under examination for many decades. These pigments are extracted from the desiccated female cochineal insects, which are mainly nourished with wild cacti. In addition, nearly ten types or species of Dactylopius are classified in a small family of Dactylopiidae. For the production of Italian vermouths, extracts are prepared by soaking (macerating) the herbs and spices (7–11 g/L) in highly rectified alcohol (~85%). Dactylopius coccus Costa are legally approved for food use. The genus initially consisted of nine species worldwide (De Lotto 1974; Perez-Guerra and Kosztarab 1992; De Haro and Claps 1995). The main Dactylopius species producing cochineal is our Dactylopius coccus. Once the cochineals have finished the cycle, the new cochineals are ready to begin the cycle again or to be dried for dye production. Generally, pigments extracted from insects are anthraquinone (also known as anthracenedione) in nature. Therefore, cochineal extracts or carminic acid may be treated with alum to produce the colourant. These include kermes, obtained from Coccus ilicis (or Kermes ilicis), which infects the Kermes oak, and cochineal, obtained from Dactylopius coccus, which lives on prickly pear cactus in Mexico. Spreng., Cucurbitaceae family) has been suggested to be such a potential novel and extremely lycopene-rich pigment source (Kha et al., 2013; Chuyen et al., 2015). Targioni Tozzetti, 1867 was transferred into . The cochineal, Dactylopius coccus, is a scale insect in the family Coccidae, and is native to tropical and subtropical South America and Mexico.As a protective strategy, the cochineal produces carminic acid that deters predation by other insects, especially ants. Peru, the Canary Islands, and Mexico are major countries producing and extracting insect pigments worldwide. In that picture notice the blood-red stain on the tip of my thumb at the lower left. The pigments, which are chemically classified as anthraquinones, are extracted from dried gravid insects (Rangan and Barceloux, 2009) using boiling water. Ommochromes are visual pigments providing ranges of color from yellow to red and from brown to black; they were used in coloring the body. Wine has been flavored with aromatic and bitter botanicals, probably for millennia, but certainly since ancient Greek and Roman times. This poses a considerable challenge for the systematic screening of arthropod species for new natural products, because for many, if not most groups of arthropods biological knowledge is extremely limited. For instance, hydrophilic anthocyanins, ie, derived from red grape, black currant, elderberry and chokeberry (E 163/21 CFR §73.250) as well as from black carrot, red radish, red cabbage and purple corn (E 163/21 CFR §73.26) are available for red to purple hues. In comparison to anthocyanins, betalains maintain their color appearance over a broader pH range from 3 to 7 (Jackman and Smith, 1996), being particularly suitable for coloring weakly acidic to neutral food. Scale insects in general vary dramatically in appearance; some hide beneath oyster-shell-like wax scales, and some others form cottony tufts like ours. Biosystematics of the family Dactylopiidae (Homoptera: Coccinea) with emphasis on the life cycle of Dactylopius coccus Costa. cycle of Dactylopius coccus Costa: studies on the morphology. In the case of many tropical poisonous frogs, the sequestered toxins are in fact derived from arthropod prey species, and extensive research in this area has had the indirect effect of revealing much about the defensive alkaloids of many species of arthropods (Figure 2).23–27. The Chinese National Standard (CNS) identification for lac dye is designated as 08.104, the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) identification is Natural Additives 13, and the Japanese identification is Natural Additives 462. Distillation may be employed to obtain selected essences, although the milder technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) may soon take its place. Observations were made in a constant environment room at 27 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity with a 14‐h daylight cycle to provide conditions known to suit the development, survival and reproduction of Dactylopius species (Moran & Cobby 1979; Hosking 1984; Sullivan 1990; Guerra & Kosztarab 1992). One of the most studied systems concerns lepidopteran species that have developed specific detoxification mechanisms aimed at the glucosinate–myrosinase defense system found within plants of the order Brassicales.34 A detailed understanding of the biomolecular mechanisms of plant–insect ecological interactions holds promise in many areas. The effect of mating on the maturation of its ovaries was determined. The Cochineal Bug is a scale insect that is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a beetle when in fact is a scale insect. The various coverings protect the insect from detection by predators, temperature extremes and, if they are on a plant in a garden or greenhouse, from insecticides sprayed on them. Coccus bassi. In the past, a distinct red color was derived from the addition of cochineal (an extract from the insect Dactylopius coccus). Excerpts from Jim Conrad's Biosynthesis of anthraquinones and aphins takes place via polyketides pathways, with the successive condensation of a simple unit of carboxylic acid moiety and its biosynthesis, generally found in two major insect families, namely Aphidoidae and Hemiptera (Coccoidea). If a darker tawny color is preferred, after the addition of the flavor extracts, caramel may be added. E120 can contain substantial amounts of aminocarminic derivates formed during carminic acid heating in the presence of ammonia (Sabatino et al., 2012). J.E. Some species complete development in as little as four years, but others have a 13- or 17-year life cycle. Their offspring are genetic replications of themselves. Its colour in solution changes with pH since the phenolic groups are rather acidic. Guerra, G.P. However, color formulations derived from these vegetables are mostly impaired by a strong vegetable-like odor. In a few cases, for example, the coleopteran defensive polyketide pederin (14),28 bacterial origin has been demonstrated, and it is probable that many more so-called arthropod natural products are in fact the products of microbial symbionts.29,30 Furthermore, as previously mentioned, many arthropods sequester small-molecule metabolites from their diet – plants, other arthropods, or fungi. At the end of the cycle, the new cochineals are left to reproduce or are collected and dried for dye production. Lac dye is now officially registered as a natural food preservative in various countries worldwide. In contrast to numerous anthocyanin-rich edible plant sources used to color food products red, the only commercially available betalain-based dye is derived from red beet. and pitaya (Cereus, Hylocereus, and Selenicereus spp.) The ovaries of the adult cochineal scale insect, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) are made up of more than 400 short ovarioles of the telotrophic type. Carminic acid color is known to be highly pH dependent in solutions. 1). Certain mealybugs of the genus Dactylopius are famous less for their interesting life cycle than for the red juice they're filled with. ... in order to estimate the life cycle duration. Carminic acid has the ability to form chelates with metal ions (aluminium and calcium) termed carmines. The complete cycle lasts 3 months during which the cacti are kept at a constant temperature of 27 °C. The pigment is extracted by crushing and heating the scale bodies, and commercial production is 4 to 5 times more expensive than synthetic dyes. The ovarioles consist of a germarium with six or seven nurse cells, a vitellarium with an oocyte, and pedicel. This is an issue for the food industry when looking for compliant alternatives to carmine if severe processing conditions (i.e., sterilization) are mandatory. One kilogram (2.2 pounds) of cochineal dye can be obtained from an estimated 200,000 insects. That's because among scale insects the adult females continue to look as they did when they were larvae, a condition known as "neoteny." of the Cactaceae family have been proposed to represent very promising betacyanin-bearing pigment sources (Stintzing et al., 2003). Dactylopius (Costa) is a genus of insects commonly known as cochineals that belongs to the family Dactylopiidae (Signoret) from the super family Coccoidea (scale insects) within the order Hemiptera.Dactylopius insects feed on Cactaceae plants from the genera Opuntia and Nopalea (Pérez-Guerra and Kosztarab 1992).Both the insects and their host plants are native to the Americas (Pérez … However, further research must still be carried out in order to guarantee the haem pigment stability through the usual processing and storage conditions of foodstuffs. Those with cottony coverings often are called mealybugs. Biosystematics of the family dactylopiidae (Homoptera: Coccinea) with emphasis on the life cycle of dactylopius coccus costa View/ Open LD5655.V856_1991.P464.pdf (13.99Mb) Besides plant-based food dyes, the bright red carminic acid-based colorants (cochineal and carmine, E 120/21 CFR §73.100) from the female insect Coccus cacti syn. In world commerce, these are generally subdivided into two broad categories: the sweeter Italian and dryer French styles. The juice contains carminic acid which when mixed with aluminum or calcium salts make an exceptionally vibrant carmine dye known as cochineal. For sweetening, a sugar syrup or grape juice is fortified with wine spirits or brandy. K. Solymosi, ... B. Schoefs, in Colour Additives for Foods and Beverages, 2015. [Gema Pérez Guerra; Michael Kosztarab] Before bottling, the wine may be sterile-filtered or pasteurized. Dactylopius (Ben-Dov and Marotta 2001) and . Periodic mixing speeds extraction. This is most likely due to the fact that Fe displaces the aluminium in the complex giving rise to a bathochromic shift. Pérez-Guerra G, Kosztarab M (1992) Biosystematic of the family Dactylopiidae (Homoptera:Coccinea) with emphasis on the life cycle of Dactylopius coccus Costa. The ultimate biosynthetic origin of compounds isolated from arthropods is thus sometimes difficult to discern. Studies on the morphology and sys- tematic of scale insects No. Long before Europeans arrived, indigenous American cultures were using the red juice from Dactylopius mealybugs as a spectacularly red dye. In addition, the presence of thujones and artemisia ketone indicates the use of Artemisia species (Tonutti and Liddle, 2010). Italian vermouths are usually about 16–18% alcohol and may contain up to 4–16% sugar, for dry and sweet versions, respectively. Ronald S. Jackson PhD, in Wine Science (Fourth Edition), 2014. The genus Dactylopius, to which cochineals belong, comprises ten species, all distributed originally in North or South America. It is sold and illicitly used as an acid-stable carminic acid suitable for acidic food (Sabatino et al., 2012). Female Cochineal Bug Picture Male Cochineal Bug Picture. These pigments are mainly classified based on two criteria: the ones that are synthesized by insects (i.e., pterins, anthraquinones, ommochromes, aphins, tetrapyrroles, papiliochromes, and melanins) and the others that are sequestered from their host plants (i.e., the water-soluble flavonoids and the antioxidative carotenoids). Aminocarminic acid maintains deep red colouring power at very low pH, but is not approved as a food colourant. 16. Dactylopius. Another problem is posed by the fact that the number of known species that can be collected in large quantities (often those species considered pests) represents only a small fraction of overall arthropod species diversity. Until recently, carminic acid-based colorants offered a vivid and highly stable color as compared to plant-derived red dyes, being frequently used by the food industry to color food. Adult males of most scale species have wings but they never feed, just try to have sex with a female, then die within a day or two. Pterins are synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) of ommatidia and also are found in the eyes of ommatidia (Shamim et al., 2014). The insects’ bodies contain the pigment called carminic acid, which is effective in repelling potential predators. Studies on the morphology and systematics of scale insects. Adult females (fig. Hb could also be used to enhance the red colour in some formulated meat products; i.e. Such sequestered compounds frequently undergo additional modification. French vermouths typically contain 18% alcohol and 4% sugar. That resulted from a previous attempt to tease the insect from its cotton, when I was not careful enough, and the insect got a little squished. For example, there are potentially great environmental benefits associated with the ability to move from blanket pesticide use in agricultural pest control to finely tuned, chemically mediated, biorational approaches based on a firm understanding of the chemical signals used by all participants in the overall interaction, including the target pest, the plant, and often the pest’s natural predators.