Upon learning of Guiscard's move, Alexius revised his battle plan. Alexius moved his army to the hills opposite the city, planning to attack the Normans the next day. His luck was not with him and the rough seas and storms forced him back. He also learned that the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV, was at the gates of Rome and besieging Pope Gregory VII, a Norman ally. [9] At the southern end of the circumvallation, where it came close to the sea, Caesar was building a second wall 200 metres south of the main one to protect his defenders from a sea-borne attack from the rear, but it was unfinished and the area between the walls was undefended from the seaward side. Caesar replied that he would agree to resign his military command only if Pompey followed suit. Battle of Dyrrhachium Emperor Alexius arrived in the vicinity of the besieged city in mid-October. As it was winter Bibulus was unprepared and Caesar was able to sail through the blockade easily and form a beachhead at Epirus with the first half of his army. "[28], George Palaeologus had not been able to re-enter the city after the battle and left with the main force. [21], Robert was not discouraged by this naval defeat, and began his siege of Dyrrhachium. He ordered a retreat which soon became a panicked and disordered rout. Soon afterwards the Norman army was afflicted with disease, which, according to Anna Comnena, may have killed up to 10 000 men. It was now a race against time as both Caesar and Pompey rushed to meet Antony. This made an assault on the position nearly impossible. So dire was his situation that he made several attempts to discuss peace with Pompey but was refused at every channel. The Normans counter-attacked tenaciously, but their inexperience in naval combat betrayed them. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). The Battle of Dyrrhachium in February 1018 was a part of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars.It happened as the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Vladislav tried to establish his power on the southeastern coast of the Adriatic Sea.He led an army against Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës, in Albania) and besieged it, but was killed during a counterattack of the city’s defenders. Pompey refrained from pursuing Caesar's routed forces and this allowed them to regroup. Battle of Pharsalus, (48 bce), the decisive engagement in the Roman civil war (49–45 bce) between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. By January of 48 BC, Caesar decided there was no time like the present and decided to make a surprise winter crossing, to offset the advantage that … The autumn harvest was approaching and soon Caesar would have enough food to prolong his position. However, the Senate ordered him to resign command of his army. The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by Alexius I, and the Normans under Robert Guiscard. After the failure of the counterattack and considering the losses incurred, Caesar resolved to give up attempting to besiege Pompey and to change the entire strategy of the campaign. The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. [13], Coordinates: 41°19′00″N 19°27′00″E / 41.3167°N 19.4500°E / 41.3167; 19.4500, 1,000 according to Caesar himself, 1,000 according to Plutarch in his, Learn how and when to remove this template message, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_dyrrhachium.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Dyrrhachium_(48_BC)&oldid=991723255, Articles needing additional references from July 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 14:06. The two ancient leaders fought against each other for absolute power over the Roman Republic. [8] As they were paid with lands, soon they were powerful enough to challenge Papal authority; in 1054, they defeated the Pope at the Battle of Civitate, forcing him to acknowledge their authority. Varangian mercenaries joined in the pursuit of the fleeing Normans, but became separated from the main force and were massacred. They responded by recapturing Dyrrhachium and Corfu and returning them to the Byzantine Empire. [18], Robert soon left Avalona and sailed to the island of Corfu, which surrendered because of a small garrison. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesar's Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). Forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the Normans in the campaign. [18] The Doge, alarmed by Norman control of the Strait of Otranto, took command of the Venetian fleet and sailed at once, surprising the Norman fleet under the command of Bohemond as night was falling. [33] With this money, Alexius mustered an army near Thessalonica and went to fight Bohemond. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. [4], Between these two fortifications a no man's land was created which saw constant skirmishes with little or no gain. Guiscard formed his battle line opposite Alexius's, with the right wing under the command of the Count of Giovinazzo, the left under Bohemond and Guiscard facing Alexius in the centre. However, this situation did assist Caesar because the Adriatic was sufficiently treacherous to deter the war galleys of Pompey's fleet, commanded by Caesar's former co-consul Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, at Corfu. One of the most important battles of the eleventh century took place on October 18, 1081 at Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës in Albania). An old rival, Bibulus, controlled the Ionium Sea with the Republican navy, and Caesar fretted over when and how to make a crossing. The defense of the citadel was left to the Venetians, while the city itself was left to an Albanian, Komiskortes. However, Libo could not sustain this position because of a lack of water.[3]. [8], By midsummer, though, Pompey had a fortunate stroke of luck. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). Albania relief location map.jpg 685 × 1,002; 406 KB Pompey sent a large force of infantry and 3,000 cavalry to outflank Caesar's right wing. [24], In the meantime, the Byzantine right and centre had been engaging in skirmishes with the Normans opposite them. It consisted of Thracian and Macedonian tagmata, which numbered about 5,000 men; the elite excubitors and vestiaritai units, which numbered around 1,000 men; a force of Manichaeans which comprised 2,800 men, Thessalian cavalry, Balkan conscripts, Armenian infantry and other light troops. With their massive battle axes, the Varangians attacked the Norman knights, who were driven away after their horses panicked. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo ), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. : p. 108 (48, May 20, Battle of Dyrrhachium) found : Harbottle dict. [22], Meanwhile, a Byzantine fleet arrived and – after joining with the Venetian fleet – attacked the Norman fleet, which was again routed. During the morning Pompey consolidated his newly-won position by building a camp south of the Caesarian walls and put five of his legions there, he then sent the sixth to occupy a small camp between the walls that had been abandoned by Caesar, and enlarged the defences. The Varangians soon became separated from the main force and exhausted so they were in no position to resist an assault. In late 49 BC, Caesar and his 12 legions arrived at Brundisium, where he hoped to secure passage to Greece. [19] The city was well defended on a long, narrow peninsula running parallel to the coast, but separated by marshlands. In 1073, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII sent an envoy to Robert offering the hand of his son Constantine to Robert's daughter Helena. The garrison made continuous sallies from the city; on one occasion, Palaeologus fought all day with an arrowhead in his skull. Norman losses are unknown, but John Haldon claims they are substantial as both wings broke and fled. At Dyrrachium Pompey held a strong defensive position; his back was guarded by the sea, and at his front there were hills that commanded the immediate area. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). The battle ended in a Norman victory, with Alexios I Komnenos routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. mil. It was fought be­tween Julius Cae­sar and an army led by Gnaeus Pom­pey who had the back­ing of the ma­jor­ity of the Roman Sen­ate. However, with the collapse of the Norman right, the knights were in danger of being outflanked. [37], Coordinates: 41°18′00″N 19°30′00″E / 41.3°N 19.5°E / 41.3; 19.5. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës in Albania), the major Byzantine stronghold in the western Balkans, and ended in a Norman victory. His back was guarded by the sea, and at his front there were hills that commanded the immediate area. Robert had no intention of peace; he sent his son Bohemond with an advance force towards Greece and Bohemond landed at Aulon, with Robert following shortly after. According to Comnena, Alexius had about 20,000 men; historian John Haldon puts the army's size between 18,000 to 20,000 men, while John Birkenmeier estimates it between 20,000–25,000 men. He established his camp on the top of a rocky outcrop called Petra, overlooking the Egnatian Way and protecting a reasonable anchorage for his ships about five miles to the south of his base. Following the Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, the Byzantine emperor, Michael VII Doukas (r. 1071–1078), betrothed his son to Robert Guiscard's daughter. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard,Duke of Apulia and Calabria. [10], Pompey mounted a frontal attack of six legions against Caesar's line where it joined the sea and where the IX legion was stationed. bat. Varangian mercenaries joined in the pursuit of the fleeing Normans, but became separated from the main force and were massacred. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar’s Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. Robert left his son Bohemond in charge of the army in Greece. After his defeat at Dyrrhachium in July of 48 BC, Caesar moved swiftly into Thessaly, incorporating the towns of the region under his control. Now it was Pompey who was at a disavantage as his troops began to fraternize with the Caeserion forces, and Caesar's former legate who had left him, Labienus had to put a stop to it. Caesar did not immediately give chase to Pompey and instead consolidated power in Rome and Italy. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Roman Empire, led by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. The Battle of Dyrrhachium in February 1018 was a part of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars. [25], Alexius and his guards resisted as long as they could before retreating. Dyrrhachium (also known as Epidamnus, modern Durrës in Albania) is at the beginning of the Via Egnatia, the Roman road that connected the Adriatic Sea to Macedonia and the Aegean Sea. Offended by Caesar's response, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people. Caesar's blunder had put him in the worst possible position any army could find itself. [16] The fleet sailed to Avalona in Byzantine territory; they were joined by several ships from Ragusa, a republic in the Balkans who were enemies of the Byzantines. As well as the native troops, the Byzantines were joined by 2,000 Turkish and 1,000 Frankish mercenaries, about 1,000 Varangians and 7,000 Turkish auxiliaries sent by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesar's Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was indecisive but is regarded as a victory for Pompey. Realizing he was going to have to fight his way out, he attempted another winter blockade run back to Italy to lead his remaining forces to Greece. His ships were destroyed in a brief naval battle, while at the same time, the garrison of Dyrrhachium, led by George Palaeologus, defeated the Normans outside the city and destroyed their siege tower. At first Caesar personally tried to stem the retreat, but the fleeing troops did not stop until they reached their own camps. [25], Meanwhile, George Palaeologus sortied out of Dyrrhachium, but failed to save the situation. He had other problems as well; Pompey had left him with no ships to cross the Adriatic, and Spain had begun to mobilize against Caesar. Travel across the Adriatic Sea to Greece would ordinarily be tricky, but was made more so given that it was winter. Pompey also sent some auxiliaries and light infantry to attack by sea. [25], "Alexius was undoubtedly a good tactician, but he was badly let down by the indisciplined rush to pursue the beaten enemy wings, a cardinal sin in the Byzantine tactical manuals. The archers continued this tactic until the army neared contact. Another sally succeeded in destroying Robert's siege tower. Gravett, Christopher; Nicolle, David (2006). Pompey linked up with Scipio and then with a force which now numbers nine-and-a-half legions, 7,000 cavalry and numerous light-armed auxiliaries he also reached Pharsalus. Between these two fortifications a no mans land was creat… The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. DYRRHACHIUM: LESNIKIA R (48) – Second Civil W ar. The few remaining Varangians fled into the church of the Archangel Michael. Dyrrhachium in February 1082, Dyrrhachium fell after a Venetian or Amalfian citizen opened the gates to the took. [ 4 ], in 1078, Michael was overthrown by Nicephorus Botaneiates, an event that destroyed any Helena! 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